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The Art of Engineering http://engineering.celnet.in Network of Knowledge and Innovation Fri, 14 Oct 2016 04:16:17 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.6.11 Health Improvement by Technical Capabilities http://engineering.celnet.in/health-improvement-technical-capabilities/ http://engineering.celnet.in/health-improvement-technical-capabilities/#respond Fri, 14 Oct 2016 04:16:17 +0000 http://engineering.celnet.in/?p=221 A method that uses DNA analysis to rapidly detect flu and drug-resistant bugs has launched. The device, known as Genalysis ®, is being initiated by a start-up company DNA Electronics (DNAe), which was founded on research. DNAe, has been awarded an agreement worth upto $51.9 million from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). The collaboration will optically ...

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A method that uses DNA analysis to rapidly detect flu and drug-resistant bugs has launched. The device, known as Genalysis ®, is being initiated by a start-up company DNA Electronics (DNAe), which was founded on research. DNAe, has been awarded an agreement worth upto $51.9 million from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). The collaboration will optically distinguish DNAe working with BARDA to further develop Genalysis®, so that hospitals can rapidly detect the early designations of drug-resistant bugs and influenza in patients to make treatments expeditious, personalised and more efficacious. Researchers described that the way we diagnose patients is undergoing a massive transformation, kindred to that which transpired with computers. In the 1960s and 1970s, massive mainframe computers were the only contrivances able to crunch exceedingly immense amounts of data, but the digital revolution has optically discerned the same computing power condensed into our phones. Similarly, we are now moving away from gene sequencing being carried out in immensely colossal laboratories. Instead, contrivances like Genalysis will be capable of doing it more efficiently and expeditiously at the point of care, which we believe could lead to more efficacious treatments for patients. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has assessed that more than two million people per year in numerous regions agonize from antimicrobial resistant (AMR) infections, which results in 23,000 deaths. The CDC also forecasts that a future flu epidemic could result in between 89,000 and 207,000 demises, which could price the economic budget between $71.3 and $166.5 billion. The gold standard laboratory analysis process for people with a suspected drug-resistant infection can currently take up to three days, making it much more arduous to treat patients. Genalysis® would analyse a patient’s blood sample and identify the bug and additionally sequence the genes that are resistant to treatments. There are a number of clinical scenarios where this rapid analysis would be of benefit in the fight against antimicrobial resistance, verbally expresses the team. For instance, in the case of staphylococcal infections, the contrivance would determine the type of staphy bacteria infecting the patient and determine if it was the kind that is resistant to the drug methicillin so that a cumulation of treatments can be administered. In the case of influenza, the team believes Genalysis® could avail to guide medicos on the utilization of antiviral medication. This type of medication must be rapidly administered in order to be efficacious. For the elderly, people with emasculated immune systems, and others with medical complications, a swift and precise diagnosis and prescription can have a profound impact on their outcome. The Genalysis® team prognosticates that their contrivance will be able to determine the strain of influenza and antivirals needed to treat it. It can withal be operated by users who are not concretely trained in genome sequencing, widening the range of healthcare professionals who can assess patients utilizing this method.

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Advance Development by using Nanoengineering as a Tool http://engineering.celnet.in/advance-development-using-nanoengineering-tool/ http://engineering.celnet.in/advance-development-using-nanoengineering-tool/#respond Wed, 05 Oct 2016 10:04:03 +0000 http://engineering.celnet.in/?p=216 Nanoengineering is the exercise of engineering on the nanoscale. It originates its name from the nanometre, a unit of quantification equalling one billionth of a meter. Nanoengineering is largely a synonym for nanotechnology, but accentuates the engineering rather than the pristine science aspects of the field. By utilizing nano-engineering as an implement researcher shows that ...

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Nanoengineering is the exercise of engineering on the nanoscale. It originates its name from the nanometre, a unit of quantification equalling one billionth of a meter. Nanoengineering is largely a synonym for nanotechnology, but accentuates the engineering rather than the pristine science aspects of the field. By utilizing nano-engineering as an implement researcher shows that a micromotor fueled by stomach acid can take a bubble-powered ride inside a mouse. These minute motors, each about one-fifth the width of a human hair, may bid a safer and more efficient way to distribute drugs or diagnose tumors. The incipient motors aimed controlling and enhancing site-categorical distribution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, consist of dihydrogen monoxide-powered magnesium-predicated tubular micromotors coated with an enteric polymer layer. The microscale robot can allocate lade to particular location through dissolution of their enteric polymeric coating to activate their propulsion at the target site towards localized tissue perforation and retention. The enteric coating can shield the motors from an acidic gastric fluid environment (pH 1–3) but dissolves in intestinal fluid (pH 6-7) to expose the motors to their fuel and commence the kineticism. Tuning the thickness of the pH-sensitive coating it is feasible to selectively activate the propulsion, at desired regions of the GI tract, and thus to control their localized tissue perforation and retention. Our in vivo results demonstrate that these micromotors can safely pass through the gastric fluid and accurately activate in the GI tract without causing conspicuous acute toxicity. They calculated the properties and functions of the synthesized enteric magnesium micromotors in a mouse model. The in vivo results demonstrate that these motors can safely pass through the stomach and accurately activate in the GI tract without causing salient acute toxicity. Our micromotor-predicated GI conveyor system offers innovative cumulation of precise situating and active propulsion towards efficacious localized GI distribution and amended retention in the GI tract. These developments are of particular paramountcy for the emerging microbiome research.

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Launching of New-flanged Satellite a Boon to Space Engineering http://engineering.celnet.in/launching-new-flanged-satellite-boon-space-engineering/ http://engineering.celnet.in/launching-new-flanged-satellite-boon-space-engineering/#respond Wed, 05 Oct 2016 07:18:05 +0000 http://engineering.celnet.in/?p=211 The International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft (designed and launched as the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3(ISEE-3) satellite), was launched August 12, 1978, into a heliocentric orbit. It was a unique of three spacecraft, along with the mother/daughter couple of ISEE-1 and ISEE-2, fabricated for the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) program, a combined effort by NASA and ESRO/ESA to study the interaction between our planet’s magnetic field and the solar wind. ...

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The International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft (designed and launched as the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3(ISEE-3) satellite), was launched August 12, 1978, into a heliocentric orbit. It was a unique of three spacecraft, along with the mother/daughter couple of ISEE-1 and ISEE-2, fabricated for the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) program, a combined effort by NASA and ESRO/ESA to study the interaction between our planet’s magnetic field and the solar wind. Thirty centuries ago at present, the International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 probe became the primarily spacecraft to wing by a comet. Launched in 1978, ISEE 3 spent numerous years wandering near Earth, investigating the solar wind and Earth’s magnetic field.

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Treatment of Mitochondrial Diseases by Genetic Engineering http://engineering.celnet.in/treatment-mitochondrial-diseases-genetic-engineering/ http://engineering.celnet.in/treatment-mitochondrial-diseases-genetic-engineering/#respond Wed, 05 Oct 2016 06:54:31 +0000 http://engineering.celnet.in/?p=204 Mitochondria– an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner part being folded inwards to form layers (cristae). Mitochondrial diseases result from failures of the mitochondria, specialized compartments present in every cell of the body except red ...

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Mitochondria– an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner part being folded inwards to form layers (cristae). Mitochondrial diseases result from failures of the mitochondria, specialized compartments present in every cell of the body except red blood cells. Mitochondria are responsible for creating more than 90% of the energy needed by the body to sustain life and support growth. When they fail, less and less energy is generated within the cell. Cell injury and even cell death follow. If this process is reiterated all over the body, whole systems begin to fail, and the life of the person in whom this is happening is severely compromised. The disease primarily affects children, but adult onset is becoming more and more common. Diseases of the mitochondria appear to cause the most damage to cells of the brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscles, kidney and the endocrine and respiratory systems. Depending on which cells are affected, symptoms may include loss of motor control, muscle weakness and pain, gastro-intestinal disorders and swallowing difficulties, poor growth, cardiac disease, liver disease, diabetes, respiratory complications, seizures, visual/hearing problems, lactic acidosis, developmental delays and susceptibility to infection. Mitochondrial diseases can be treated by a noval method of “GENE EDITING”.  A new genetic engineering technique could help prevent mitochondrial diseases without the ethically sticky “three-parent problem” of another recently developed method. The three-parent technique involves transferring the nucleus of a prospective mother’s egg into a donor egg containing healthy mitochondria in order to replace mutant mitochondria with healthy ones.  The new gene-editing method removes or depletes the number of mutant mitochondria from eggs or early embryos. This methodology could preserve mitochondrial diseases from being passed from mother to child.

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Genetic Engineering in Human Hands http://engineering.celnet.in/genetic-engineering-human-hands/ http://engineering.celnet.in/genetic-engineering-human-hands/#respond Wed, 05 Oct 2016 06:14:32 +0000 http://engineering.celnet.in/?p=196 Gene drive is an exercise of stimulating biased inheritance of particular genes to alter entire populations. Possible alterations include adding, disrupting, or modifying genes, including some that reduce reproductive capacity and may root a population crash. Prominently, gene drives function only in sexually reproducing species, so they cannot be used to engineer populations of viruses or bacteria. Some alleles have evolved ...

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Gene drive is an exercise of stimulating biased inheritance of particular genes to alter entire populations. Possible alterations include adding, disrupting, or modifying genes, including some that reduce reproductive capacity and may root a population crash. Prominently, gene drives function only in sexually reproducing species, so they cannot be used to engineer populations of viruses or bacteria. Some alleles have evolved molecular mechanisms that confer them greater transmission chance than the normal 50%, which confers them gene drive properties. Synthetic genetic modules with analogous properties have been established as a powerful technique for genome editing of in-vivo populations. It has been recommended as a technique for changing wild populations, for instance to conflict insects that spread diseases (in particular mosquitoes in the cases of malaria and zika), to control invasive species, or to eradicate herbicide- or pesticide resistance. Numerous molecular mechanisms can arbitrate gene drive. This admission focuses on endonuclease-based gene drive, the supreme versatile and actively emergent molecular backend for synthetic gene drives. It must be duly noted that the term gene drive denotes to both the principle of biasing allele inheritance and to the genetic elements highlighting a biased inheritance (i.e. a piece of DNA). Because it is a way to artificially bias inheritance of desired genes, gene drive set up a major change in biotechnology. The potentially huge impact of releasing gene drives in the wild nurtures major bioethics concerns regarding their development and management. Gene drives has a potential to spread a trait across through an entire population — potentially even eradicating an entire species. But, evolutionary powers are going to change even the super best-engineered plans. A powerful and controversial new application for genetic engineering: GENE DRIVES is now discovered by novel scientists. Gene drives can force a trait through a population, challenging the usual rules of inheritance. A specific trait customarily has a 50-50 chance of being passed along to the next generation. A gene drive could push that degree to nearly 100%. The genetic dominance would then linger in all future generations. Gene drives may work in some species that reproduces sexually, and they have the potential to revolutionize disease control, agriculture, conservation and many more. Scientists influence can be able to stop mosquitoes from spreading malaria, for example, or exterminate the invasive species. The technology characterizes the first time in history that humans have the capability to engineer the genes of a wild population. As such, it raises an intense ethical and practical concern.

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Earthquake Engineering: Causes and Disruption http://engineering.celnet.in/earthquake-engineering-causes-disruption/ http://engineering.celnet.in/earthquake-engineering-causes-disruption/#respond Wed, 05 Oct 2016 05:09:59 +0000 http://engineering.celnet.in/?p=193 Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. Its overall goal is to make such structures more resistant to earthquakes. An earthquake (or seismic) engineer aims to construct structures that will not be damaged in minor shaking and will avoid serious damage or ...

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Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. Its overall goal is to make such structures more resistant to earthquakes. An earthquake (or seismic) engineer aims to construct structures that will not be damaged in minor shaking and will avoid serious damage or collapse in a major earthquake. Earthquake engineering is the scientific field concerned with forfending society, the natural environment, and the man-made environment from earthquakes by circumscribing the seismic risk to socio-economically acceptable levels. Traditionally, it has been narrowly defined as the study of the comportment of structures and geo-structures subject to seismic loading; it is considered as a subset of structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, applied physics, etc. The main objective of earthquake engineering is to predict the potential consequences of sturdy earthquakes on urban town-ships and civil infrastructure. Secondly, the design, construct and maintain structures to accomplish at earthquake exposure upto the expectations and in agreement with building cryptograms/cryptographs. Earthquakes are generally caused when rock underground unexpectedly breaks along a fault. This unexpected discharge of energy causes the seismic waves that make the earth shake. When two cakes of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a slight. They don’t just slide smoothly; the rocks fastened on each other. The rocks still act force against each other, but donot move. After a while, the rocks break because of all the pressure that’s built up. When the rocks break, the earthquake takes place. Throughout the earthquake and afterward, the plates or blocks of rock start moving, and they endure to move until they get fixed again. The spot underground where the rock breaks is called the focus of the earthquake. The point just right above the focus (on top of the ground) is called the epicenter of the earthquake. Earthquake-like seismic waves can also be caused by explosions underground. These outbursts may be set off to break rock while making tunnels for roads, railroads, subways, or mines. These explosions, however, don’t cause very strong seismic waves. You may not even feel them.  Many times happens that the seismic waves occur when the roof or walls of a mine collapse. These can sometimes be felt by people near the mine. The most immensely colossal underground explosions, from tests of nuclear warheads (bombs), can engender seismic waves very much homogeneous to immensely colossal earthquakes. This fact has been exploited as an expedient to enforce the ecumenical nuclear test ostracize, because no nuclear warhead can be detonated on earth without engendering such seismic waves.

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A New-flanged Technology Invention for Cost-effective Purification System http://engineering.celnet.in/new-flanged-technology-invention-cost-effective-purification-system/ http://engineering.celnet.in/new-flanged-technology-invention-cost-effective-purification-system/#respond Wed, 05 Oct 2016 04:46:04 +0000 http://engineering.celnet.in/?p=190 Our Blue Planet can only hold so many contaminants/impurities in excess water released into the environment by homes, businesses and industries before causing death to the living organisms. To preclude this frightening introduction of pollutants to the environment, wastewater must be treated sufficiently prior to being released. A renowned Agriculture Engineering University is functioning to ...

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Our Blue Planet can only hold so many contaminants/impurities in excess water released into the environment by homes, businesses and industries before causing death to the living organisms. To preclude this frightening introduction of pollutants to the environment, wastewater must be treated sufficiently prior to being released. A renowned Agriculture Engineering University is functioning to develop cost-effective water treatment technologies to encounter industrial, agricultural and domestic needs. They are concentrating upon discovering and using iron chemistry to immobilize and secure heavy metals and to remove nutrients and other undesired impurities from various diminished liquid streams, rivers and running water. The discovery was consummated after a series of revolutions in iron chemistry to help and tolerate the iron corrosion reactivity. These breakthroughs have resolved the issue related to the materialization of passive iron oxide coatings on iron surface that might stop iron corrosion reaction, often denoted to as iron passivization, which has disturbed scientists and the industry for several years. The main chemical used by the researchers is Activated Iron Technology which is a metallic iron powder, an inexpensive and widely available whole-a-round the world. With the answering of the iron passivization issue, the technology could now use the complete reactive power of iron for targeted contaminant treatment, hence momentously reducing the usage rate of the chemicals and engendering less solid wastes. The newfangled technology is vigorous and versatile, capable of removing a broad spectrum of toxic materials from some of the most challenging and complex wastewater. The materials abstracted include metals such as selenium, mercury, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, vanadium and lead. If these metals were left untreated in the wastewater and discharged into the receiving di-hydrogen monoxide bodies, they could hurt the health of the environment, disrupting the ecosystem, and in many cases, pose an immediate or long-term threat to human health. Through this process, soluble and toxic heftily ponderous metals in wastewater are transformed and secured in non-toxic solid forms, mostly being incorporated into the iron rust engendered from iron corrosion. The activated iron technology is a cost-efficacious solution and is efficacious in abstracting a broad spectrum of heftily ponderous metals and metalloids from many of the most challenging and intricate di-hydrogen monoxide streams, the technology is gaining attention in sundry industries around the world.

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Engineering as a Career– Job Opportunities and Specialists http://engineering.celnet.in/engineering-career-job-opportunities-specialists/ http://engineering.celnet.in/engineering-career-job-opportunities-specialists/#respond Wed, 05 Oct 2016 04:21:53 +0000 http://engineering.celnet.in/?p=188 Engineering as a career has fascinated students in the entire world in a large way and an enormous quantity of applicants taking the engineering examinations are authentication to this information. Engineering is a multi-disciplined ground with innovative disciplines and subdivisions being added with the encroachment of science and technology. Though a large number of students ...

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Engineering as a career has fascinated students in the entire world in a large way and an enormous quantity of applicants taking the engineering examinations are authentication to this information. Engineering is a multi-disciplined ground with innovative disciplines and subdivisions being added with the encroachment of science and technology.

Though a large number of students perform for different engineering exams like JEE Main (previously AIEEE), JEE Advanced (previously IIT-JEE), BITSAT and VITEEE, but not many are conscious about the innumerable career options that engineering as an occupation offers. The basic/simple engineering disciplines include Mechanical, Chemical, Civil, Electrical and Aerospace engineering.

With the growth and development of technology novel engineering disciplines like biotechnology, computer, automobile engineering and genetic engineering have expanded massive reputation among students. Here is an assembling of the wide-ranging collection of career options in the field of engineering offered as:

Engineering Career Opportunities (Many more to come)

  • Agricultural Engineering
  • Aeronautical Engineering
  • Architect Engineering
  • Automobile Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biotechnology Engineering
  • Broadcast Engineering
  • Communication Engineering
  • Ceramic Engineering
  • Chemical Engineering
  • Civil Engineering
  • Computer Engineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Earthquake Engineering
  • Electronics Engineering
  • Fire Engineering
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Industrial & Production Engineering
  • Instrumentation Engineering
  • Marine Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metallurgical Engineering
  • Mining Engineering
  • Material Engineering
  • Nuclear Engineering
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Petroleum Engineer
  • Plastic Engineering
  • Polymer Engineering
  • Rubber Technology
  • Space Technology
  • Textile Engineering

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Microchips Recommends a Challenge to Moore’s Law http://engineering.celnet.in/microchips-recommends-challenge-moores-law/ http://engineering.celnet.in/microchips-recommends-challenge-moores-law/#respond Mon, 03 Oct 2016 10:02:51 +0000 http://engineering.celnet.in/?p=180 The integrated circuits can reportedly be manufactured with off the shelf fabrication processes and could lead to novel computer architectures that do more with less circuitry and fewer transistors. Moore’s law states that the number of transistor on an integrated circuit will be doubled every two years in order to keep up with processing demands. ...

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The integrated circuits can reportedly be manufactured with off the shelf fabrication processes and could lead to novel computer architectures that do more with less circuitry and fewer transistors. Moore’s law states that the number of transistor on an integrated circuit will be doubled every two years in order to keep up with processing demands. This goal has so far been addressed by shrinking the size of individual transistors so that more could be added to the chip. However, that solution is becoming untenable, and the semiconductor industry is looking for new ways to create better computer chips. Conventionally, transistor-based circuits accomplish one task each. Computer processors maneuver by routing each instruction and its operands to the appropriate transistor circuit on the integrated circuit that implements that specific instruction. The transistor circuit can be programmed to implement different instructions by morphing between different operations and functions.

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Protecting Environment by the Use of Nanoengineering http://engineering.celnet.in/protecting-environment-use-nanoengineering/ http://engineering.celnet.in/protecting-environment-use-nanoengineering/#respond Wed, 28 Sep 2016 11:43:50 +0000 http://engineering.celnet.in/?p=178 Most efforts to turn back the superficially never-ending attack of climate change emphasize the paramountcy of eliminating carbon dioxide emissions. But with the Ecumenical Carbon Budget estimating that annual carbon dioxide emissions have grown by over three billion tonnes in 2015, it is pellucid that current emission-combative strategies are failing. An incipient study published by ...

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Most efforts to turn back the superficially never-ending attack of climate change emphasize the paramountcy of eliminating carbon dioxide emissions. But with the Ecumenical Carbon Budget estimating that annual carbon dioxide emissions have grown by over three billion tonnes in 2015, it is pellucid that current emission-combative strategies are failing. An incipient study published by a University of Toronto research group may be the commencement of a solution. Utilizing nanoengineering, the group developed a more efficient method of abstracting oxygen atoms from CO₂ via electrochemistry. Basically, this reaction involved electrons travelling through a brine bath containing dissolved CO₂. The electrons transferred their energy to the CO₂ molecules, giving them the energy needed to break their bonds. The oxygen atom liberated from the molecule will annex itself to two hydrogen atoms to engender dihydrogen monoxide, while the remaining carbon and oxygen atom form carbon monoxide. This process is established, but is withal impressively inefficient due to CO₂ not being very dihydrogen monoxide-soluble. The electrical current running through the catalyst engenders an electrical field, drawing circumventing CO₂ molecules to the needles’ tips. This congregation of molecules sanctions for a much more concentrated distribution, greatly the CO₂’s exposure to the electrical energy and, in turn, the number of conversions to CO.

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