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Earthquake Engineering: Causes and Disruption - The Art of Engineering

Earthquake Engineering: Causes and Disruption

Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. Its overall goal is to make such structures more resistant to earthquakes. An earthquake (or seismic) engineer aims to construct structures that will not be damaged in minor shaking and will avoid serious damage or collapse in a major earthquake. Earthquake engineering is the scientific field concerned with forfending society, the natural environment, and the man-made environment from earthquakes by circumscribing the seismic risk to socio-economically acceptable levels. Traditionally, it has been narrowly defined as the study of the comportment of structures and geo-structures subject to seismic loading; it is considered as a subset of structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, applied physics, etc. The main objective of earthquake engineering is to predict the potential consequences of sturdy earthquakes on urban town-ships and civil infrastructure. Secondly, the design, construct and maintain structures to accomplish at earthquake exposure upto the expectations and in agreement with building cryptograms/cryptographs. Earthquakes are generally caused when rock underground unexpectedly breaks along a fault. This unexpected discharge of energy causes the seismic waves that make the earth shake. When two cakes of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a slight. They don’t just slide smoothly; the rocks fastened on each other. The rocks still act force against each other, but donot move. After a while, the rocks break because of all the pressure that’s built up. When the rocks break, the earthquake takes place. Throughout the earthquake and afterward, the plates or blocks of rock start moving, and they endure to move until they get fixed again. The spot underground where the rock breaks is called the focus of the earthquake. The point just right above the focus (on top of the ground) is called the epicenter of the earthquake. Earthquake-like seismic waves can also be caused by explosions underground. These outbursts may be set off to break rock while making tunnels for roads, railroads, subways, or mines. These explosions, however, don’t cause very strong seismic waves. You may not even feel them.  Many times happens that the seismic waves occur when the roof or walls of a mine collapse. These can sometimes be felt by people near the mine. The most immensely colossal underground explosions, from tests of nuclear warheads (bombs), can engender seismic waves very much homogeneous to immensely colossal earthquakes. This fact has been exploited as an expedient to enforce the ecumenical nuclear test ostracize, because no nuclear warhead can be detonated on earth without engendering such seismic waves.

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